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The World Wide Web Consortium (usually abbreviated W3C) is a non-profit, advisory body that makes suggestions on the future direction of the World Wide Web, HTML, CSS, and browsers.
Perl is an interpreted language extremely popular for web applications.
A cascading style sheet file is used to define a cascading style sheet for a web page. The purpose is to provide more control over the fonts, colors, layout, etc. that go into the web page than could be provided by raw HTML. Also, since the cascading style sheet file is separate from the HTML files, it can be shared (or even inherited; a little outside the scope of this document) by multiple web pages to help provide a consistent look-and-feel across a web site. It is not yet fully supported by all browsers; newer versions of all popular browsers do provide some CSS support, however.
Cascading style sheets are used in conjunction with HTML and XHTML to define the layout of web pages. While CSS is how current web pages declare how they should be displayed, it tends not to be supported well (if at all) by ancient browsers. XSL performs this same function more generally.
A WebTV box hooks up to an ordinary television set and displays web pages. It will not display them as well as a dedicated computer.
A DTML file with dynamic extensions that provide for dynamic capabilities. DTML files are often used with Python files in implementing dynamic web sites.
A computer language designed to be both fairly lightweight and extremely portable. It is tightly bound to the web as it is the primary language for web applets. There has also been an OS based on Java for use on small hand-held, embedded, and network computers. It is called JavaOS. Java can be either interpreted or compiled. For web applet use it is almost always interpreted. While its interpreted form tends not to be very fast, its compiled form can often rival languages like C++ for speed. It is important to note however that speed is not Java's primary purpose -- raw speed is considered secondary to portabilty and ease of use.
html & htm
A hypertext markup language file contains hypertext capable of being read and interpreted by a browser. The bulk of the world wide web is in HTML format.
A browser is a program used to browse the web. Some common browsers include Netscape, MSIE (Microsoft Internet Explorer), Safari, Lynx, Mosaic, Amaya, Arena, Chimera, Opera, Cyberdog, HotJava, etc.
A common gateway interface file is a program designed to be run over the web. It is really something else in disguise, like a Perl script, an AWK script, a Bourne Shell script, a Java program, or whatever.
BBEdit Lite
BBEdit Lite is a free version of the popular BBEdit text editor. The BBEdit family of editors is often listed among the most frequently used tools for web page composition. It is available for Mac OS (both classic and X) only.
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The only browser besides Amaya to properly handle math equations in web pages, Amaya is currently only available as source for UNIX-like systems with X in its latest version (earlier versions can be obtained as binaries, too).
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A robot (or 'bot for short) in the computer sense is a program designed to automate some task, often just sending messages or collecting information. A spider is a type of robot designed to traverse the web performing some task (usually collecting data).
Though not as popular as FTP or http, the gopher protocol is implemented by many browsers and numerous other programs and allows the transfer of files across networks. In some respects it can be thought of as a hybrid between FTP and http, although it tends not to be as good at raw file transfer as FTP and is not as flexible as http. The collection of documents available through gopher is often called "gopherspace", and it should be noted that gopherspace is older than the web. It should also be noted that gopher is not getting as much attention as it once did, and surfing through gopherspace is a little like exploring a ghost town, but there is an interesting VR interface available for it, and some things in gopherspace still have not been copied onto the web.
Although Emacs is one of the world's most popular text editors, it is not just a text editor. In fact, it can do almost anything from simple text editing to e-mail handling to web browsing, and can do it all in almost every world language. What's more, it supports most OSes.
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The X bitmap format was designed specifically for small icons. It is in simple ASCII and only supports monochrome. It is supported on many platforms and most browsers. It is not space efficient, but because it is always used for small images, this is usually not a problem. Historically it is the original World-Wide Web image format; the others came along later.
The king of all the text-only browsers, Lynx will run on almost every OS and remains one of the most popular browsers overall. While it does not display inline web graphics onscreen, it does allow their selective download, and is in every other way a sophisticated and modern browser. Lynx is also extremely fast.
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The waveform audio file format was originally developed on WinTel boxes but can now be played on many platforms. It is one of the most popular audio formats found on the web. It cannot be played on as many different machines as mono au files, though, so for simple voice recording the au format may be preferable.
Microsoft bitmap image format. This is a fairly simple bitmap format that can be viewed on many different platforms but is directly supported by very few browsers. It is not used too much on the web (fortunately, as it is very inefficient) with GIFs, JPEGs, PNGs, and even X-bitmaps being preferred as they are much more portable. It is somewhat similar to the pict format.
The Hypertext Mark-up Language is the language currently most frequently used to express web pages (although it is rapidly being replaced by XHTML). Every browser has the built-in ability to understand HTML. Some browsers can additionally understand Java and browse FTP areas. HTML is a proper subset of SGML.
pict, pct, & pic
Macintosh bitmap picture format. This is a fairly simple bitmap format that can be viewed on many different platforms but is directly supported by very few browsers. It is not used too much on the web with GIFs, JPEGs, PNGs, and even X-bitmaps being preferred. It is somewhat similar to the bmp format, although utilizes compression and so boasts smaller file sizes.
The Tool Command Language is a portable interpreted computer language designed to be easy to use. Tk is a GUI toolkit for Tcl. Tcl is a fairly popular language for both integrating existing applications and for creating Web applets (note that applets written in Tcl are often called Tcklets). Tcl/Tk is available for free for most platforms, and plug-ins are available to enable many browsers to play Tcklets.
JavaScript (in spite of its name) has nothing whatsoever to do with Java (in fact, it's arguably more like Newton Script than Java). JavaScript is an interpreted language built into a browser to provide a relatively simple means of adding interactivity to web pages. It is only supported on a few different browsers, and tends not to work exactly the same on different versions. Thus its use on the Internet is somewhat restricted to fairly simple programs. On intranets where there are usually fewer browser versions in use, JavaScript has been used to implement much more complex and impressive programs.
An image format (typically called the Johnson-Grace format) with extremely aggressive compression at the expense of quality. This format is most frequently seen by AOL users as AOL automatically compresses online images of other formats (like gif or jpeg) into Johnson-Grace images. This is why AOL users often do not see web pages at the same quality level as other people, often seeing blurry images where others see clear images (and occasionally even seeing black bars that are not really present in images).
One of the most popular browsers in use today, Netscape is also one of the most feature-rich and offers the most advanced JavaScript support of all the browsers. Be sure to also take a peek at Mozilla to learn about future Netscape directions and try out upcoming betas. Netscape will run on most OSes, including Windows '95 / '98, Windows NT, Windows 3.1, Mac OS (both classic and X), Linux, Solaris, HP-UX, IRIX, Digital UNIX, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, OS/2, and more. It can be used for both browsing the web and gopherspace.
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A cookie is a small file that a web page on another machine writes to your personal machine's disk to store various bits of information. Many people strongly detest cookies and the whole idea of them, and most browsers allow the reception of cookies to be disabled or at least selectively disabled, but it should be noted that both Netscape and MSIE have silent cookie reception enabled by default. Sites that maintain shopping carts or remember a reader's last position have legitimate uses for cookies. Sites without such functionality that still spew cookies with distant (or worse, non-existent) expiration dates should perhaps be treated with a little caution.
The portable network graphics image format is designed to replace the GIF. In fact, PNG is sometimes jokingly said to really stand for "PNG's not GIF". PNG is completely lossless and can handle millions of colors; it is not limited to a palette of two-hundred fifty-six like GIF. It also has full support for transparent colors. Its only real disadvantage is that right now not all browsers support it directly. It has been recommended by the W3C, though, so odds are pretty good that most (if not all) future versions of browsers will provide direct inline support for PNG, and PNG images will start to become more commonplace on the web.
The x86 series of processors includes the Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, Celeron, and Athlon as well as the 786, 686, 586, 486, 386, 286, 8086, 8088, etc. It is an exceptionally popular design (by far the most popular CISC series) in spite of the fact that even its fastest model is significantly slower than the assorted RISC processors. Many different OSes run on machines built around x86 processors, including MS-DOS, Windows 3.1, Windows '95, Windows '98, Windows ME, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows CE, Windows XP, GEOS, Linux, Solaris, OpenBSD, NetBSD, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, OS/2, BeOS, CP/M, etc. A couple different companies produce x86 processors, but the bulk of them are produced by Intel. It is expected that this processor will eventually be completely replaced by the Merced, but the Merced development schedule is somewhat behind. Also, it should be noted that the Pentium III processor has stirred some controversy by including a "fingerprint" that will enable individual computer usage of web pages etc. to be accurately tracked.
A personal digital assistant is a small battery-powered computer intended to be carried around by the user rather than left on a desk. This means that the processor used ought to be power-efficient as well as fast, and the OS ought to be optimized for hand-held use. PDAs typically have an instant-on feature (they would be useless without it) and most are grayscale rather than color because of battery life issues. Most have a pen interface and come with a detachable stylus. None use mouses. All have some ability to exchange data with desktop systems. In terms of raw capabilities, a PDA is more capable than an organizer and less capable than a laptop (although some high-end PDAs beat out some low-end laptops). By far the most popular PDA is the Pilot, but other common types include Newtons, Psions, Zauri, Zoomers, and Windows CE hand-helds. By far the fastest current PDA is the Newton (based around a StrongARM RISC processor). Other PDAs are optimized for other tasks; few computers are as personal as PDAs and care must be taken in their purchase. Feneric's PDA / Handheld Comparison Page is perhaps the most detailed comparison of PDAs and handheld computers to be found anywhere on the web.

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